Do Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors of the Kidney Have a Predilection for Inferior Vena Cava Involvement? A Case Series and Review of the Literature

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Sovan Hota
Sidhartha Kalra
Dorairajan Lalgudi Narayanan
Ramanitharan Manikandan
Sreerag Kodakkattil Sreenivasan


Immunohistochemistry; IVC thrombus; Multimodality treatment; PNET, RENAL PNET; Renal Pelvis PNET


The primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of the kidney is an extremely rare neoplasm, the diagnosis of which mainly depends upon his-topathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and cytogenetics. A handful of cases reported in the literature mention about aggressive features of this neoplasm. The purpose of our study was to review our experience in not only the diagnosis and management of the patients with renal PNET but also to highlight its propensity to involve inferior vena cava (IVC) and also present a rare occurrence of Ewing’s sarcoma (ES)/PNET of the renal pelvis.
The clinical, operative, and histopathology records of four patients of renal PNET treated between January 2017 and December 2019 were reviewed and data analyzed concerning the available literature. Out of the four patients treated, two had level III and IV IVC thrombus, and one had dense desmoplastic adhesions with the IVC wall. One of the cases had a rare presentation of ES/PNET of the renal pelvis. All patients were managed surgically, while only one patient received adjuvant chemotherapy and following up with remission for the last 2 years and 4 months. On IHC, cluster of differentiation-99 (CD-99) was positive in all patients, and three were positive for Friend leukemia integration-1. PNET of the kidney is primarily an immunohistopathological diagnosis. This neoplasm has an increased propensity for the local invasion of surrounding structures. A multimodality approach with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy could offer better outcomes, although the prognosis of these tumors remains poor.

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