Present and future perspectives on immunotherapy for advanced renal cell carcinoma: Going to the core or beating around the bush?

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Hidenori Kawashima
Yasunori Kimura


Renal cell carcinoma, immunotherapy, cytokine, peptide-based vaccine, tumor antigen, immune checkpoint inhibitor


Metastatic lesions of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occasionally regress spontaneously after surgical removal of the primary tumor. Although this is an exceptionally rare occurrence, RCC has thus been postulated to be immunogenic. Immunotherapies, including cytokine therapy, peptide-based vaccines, and immune checkpoint inhibitors have therefore been used to treat patients with advanced, metastatic RCC. We review the history, trends, and recent progress in immunotherapy for advanced RCC and discuss future perspectives, with consideration of our experimental work on galectin 9 and PINCH as promising specific immunotherapy targets. 
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