Von Hippel-Lindau is Associated to Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Comprehensive Review

Main Article Content

Danilo Coco https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5839-1767
Silvana Leanza https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8672-7486

Keywords

pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs), surgery, Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)

Abstract


Multiorgan tumors are a hallmark of the autosomal dominant genetic disorder known as Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL), which is typically the result of inherited aberrations of the VHL tumor suppressor gene. The most frequent cancer is retinoblastoma, which can also occur in the brain and spinal cord, renal clear cell carcinoma (RCCC), paraganglioma, and neuroendocrine tumors. There may also be lymphangiomas, epididymal cysts, and pancreatic cysts or pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs). The most frequent causes of death are metastasis from RCCC and neurological complications from retinoblastoma or central nervous system (CNS). Pancreatic cysts are present in 35–70% of VHL patients. Simple cysts, serous cysts, or pNETs are possible presentations, and the likelihood of malignant degeneration or metastasis is no greater than 8%. Although VHL has been associated with pNETs, their pathological characteristics are unknown. Furthermore, it is unknown whether variations in the VHL gene cause the development of pNETs. Hence, this retrospective study was undertaken with the main aim to examine whether pNETs are connected to VHL from a surgical perspective.


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