Robotic Radical Nephrectomy with Vena Cava Thrombus Extraction (RRN-VCTE) for Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis of Surgical Technique and Outcomes

Main Article Content

Danilo Coco https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5839-1767
Silvana Leanza https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8672-7486

Keywords

outcomes, renal cell carcinoma, robotic radical nephrectomy, surgical technique, vena cava tumor thrombus

Abstract

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with vena cava tumor thrombus is a challenging condition, which requires complex surgical management. Robotic radical nephrectomy with vena cava thrombus extraction (RRN-VCTE) has emerged as a promising and minimally invasive technique. This meta-analysis aims to review the surgical technique and outcomes of RRN-VCTE in patients with RCC and vena cava tumor thrombus. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using databases, including PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library. Studies published in English till October 2021 were included. Keywords used for the search included “robotic radical nephrectomy,” “vena cava tumor thrombus,” “surgical technique,” and “outcomes.” Studies that reported on patient outcomes and surgical techniques of RRN-VCTE were included. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the pooled outcomes. The meta-analysis included 16 studies comprising 298 patients who underwent RRN-VCTE. The majority of patients were males (62.4%) with a median age of 58.9 years. The median tumor size was 7.2 cm, and 93.9% of patients had level 3 or 4 vena cava thrombus. The mean operating time was 328 min, with a range of 248–423 min. Blood loss ranged from 100 to 1500 mL. The overall complication rate was 26.5%, with no reported deaths. The average hospital stay was 9.5 days. The 2-year and 5-year survival rates were 77.5 and 53.1%, respectively. RRN-VCTE is a promising and minimally invasive surgical technique for RCC with vena cava tumor thrombus, whch is associated with low complication rates and acceptable oncological outcomes. Further research is needed to confirm the long-term survival rates and compare RRN-VCTE outcomes with conventional surgical techniques. Nonetheless, RRN-VCTE appears to be a valuable option for patients with RCC and vena cava tumor thrombus.

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