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histone demethylases, KDM3A, KDM5C, KDM6C, KDM6B, renal cell carcinoma
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the most common kidney cancer, is responsible for more than 100,000 deaths per year worldwide. The molecular mechanism of RCC is poorly understood. Many studies have indicated that epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation, noncoding RNAs, and histone modifications are central to the pathogenesis of cancer. Histone demethylases (KDMs) play a central role in histone modifications. There is emerging evidence that KDMs such as KDM3A, KDM5C, KDM6A, and KDM6B play important roles in RCC. The available literature suggests that KDMs could promote RCC development and progression via hypoxia-mediated angiogenesis pathways. Small-molecule inhibitors of KDMs are being developed and used in preclinical studies; however, their clinical relevance is yet to be established. In this mini review, we summarize our current knowledge on the putative role of histone demethylases in RCC.