The Evolving Treatment Landscape of Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma in Patients Progressing after VEGF Inhibition

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Pedro Barata
Moshe C Ornstein
Jorge A Garcia


Advanced renal cell carcinoma, immunotherapy, mTOR inhibitors, PD-1/PD-L1, VEGF inhibitors


Despite significant changes in the therapeutic landscape of renal cell carcinoma, the majority of patients with metastatic disease eventually progress after first-line treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. Understanding existing data on subsequent therapies is crucial to define an optimal treatment sequence following first-line failure. This review examines the data supporting currently approved agents in this setting and provides a framework for decision-making regarding treatment sequencing beyond first-line therapy with VEGFR TKIs.

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