Imaging of Renal Medullary Carcinoma

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Federico Greco
Eliodoro Faiella
Domiziana Santucci
Carlo Augusto Mallio
Marco Nezzo
Carlo Cosimo Quattrocchi
Bruno Beomonte Zobel
Rosario Francesco Grasso

Keywords

CT, Kidney cancer, MRI, Renal Cell Carcinoma, Renal Medullary Carcinoma, US

Abstract

Renal medullary carcinoma (RMC) is a rare, highly aggressive tumor recognized as an independent pathological entity. African-descent adolescents and young adults with sickle cell hemoglobinopathy are the most affected groups. This rare subtype of renal cell carcinoma has its own morphogenetic and pathological characteristics. The major clinical manifestations include gross hematuria, abdominal or flank pain, and weight loss. The prognosis is very poor, with 95% of cases diagnosed at an advanced stage of the disease. In this review, we summarize the morphologic and dynamic characteristics of RMC under various imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance. Differential diagnosis and management strategies are also discussed.

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